Pelvic organ prolapse is a condition in which a part of the vagina, the cervix or the whole uterus descends, as if shifted into the lumen of the vagina towards the exit or beyond the border vaginal opening. In this case, the woman notes the feeling of “foreign body” or protrusion in the vagina.
The pelvic organs include:
- uterus with appendages
- the rectum.
They are fixed to the walls of the pelvis (bone skeleton) with the help of strong ligaments, fascia and supported by the muscular system.
Main causes of pelvic organ prolapse.
- Hereditary predisposition.
- Ligamentous or muscular system injuries (in labor).
- Chronic increased physical exertion on pelvic organs.
Factors contributing to the development of an omission.
- Births through the natural birth canal, especially if there were 2 or more.
- Complicated childbirth.
- Age, especially after menopause.
- Heavy physical labor, weightlifting.
- Chronic cough.
- Chronic constipation.
- Metabolic disorders (obesity, diabetes).
- Hereditary features of the structure of connective tissue.
Types of pelvic organ prolapse.
- Omission of the front wall of the vagina (cystocele).
- Omission of the posterior vaginal wall (rectocele).
- Apical prolapse.
- Paravaginal defects.
- Very often there are combinations of the above types.
If during hygiene procedures there is a slight bulging in the vagina or at the exit from it, which increases with straining, you should suspect pelvic organ prolapse. Often there is urinary incontinence, gas and / or stool incontinence, and frequent urination. With age and time, the disease progresses and the condition of patients worsens.
The main method for pelvic organ prolapse is surgical treatment.
The task of the doctor is to determine the indications, select the time, the optimal access and volume of the operation. Offered more than 200 types of operations for this pathology.
The main types of surgery are as follows:
Operations aimed at eliminating pelvic hernia that are performed from the vaginal access (sometimes called vaginal plastic) using their own tissues or synthetic materials (special mesh prostheses) are used, or using laparoscopic access (laparoscopic promontofixation, correction of paravaginal defects).
Basic principles of pelvic surgery:
- If the uterus can and should be preserved, organ-preserving operations are performed.
- Minimum operational injury. In most cases, vaginal or laparoscopic access is used, which are more easily tolerated by the patient, recovery is faster, there is no negative impact on the quality of sexual life. Today in the world it is the most used access to eliminate pelvic dysfunction.
- Individual approach. We always stand on the position of the patient and take into account both the features of her disease and her wishes. Our patients in many cases become pregnant and have children after surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in the childbearing age.
The Clinic “Lekar” has accumulated vast experience in treating patients with pelvic organ prolapse, both vaginal and laparoscopic approaches. To do this, the clinic has modern equipment, special synthetic nets and qualified medical personnel who own the entire volume of surgical interventions for this complex pathology and at a high level provides assistance to such patients. In our work, we adhere to the best European standards for the treatment of such patients.